Exotic Energy

In the late 1990s type Ia supernovae were observed and comparisons were made of 1) their recession velocities from here as measured by the red shifting of the light from its original frequency, and 2) the distance of the objects as determined by the brightness of these “standard candles”. It has been concluded that the most distant of these objects are dimmer than it was assumed would be the case and that the expansion of the Universe was actually accelerating. The required force for the acceleration resulted in a new exotic (or dark) energy. There is little understood about what this energy could be. The dominant theories are a reincarnation of Einstein’s cosmological constant and a concept called quintessence. It is now assumed that 72% the Universe is composed of dark energy, 22% is dark matter and the remaining 4% is the traditional matter and energy. This leaves 96% of the Universe unexplained and unobservable.

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