*Minkowskian Spacetime*

1a. All mass shares an origin with the Big Bang, yet the Universe expands causing objects to move away from each other. For one second after the Big Bang, what is the formula for the length of the worldline? The Minkowskian grid spaces events with “real” distances between intervals. Where does the worldline point one second after the Big Bang event, i.e., does the worldline point in a particular direction? Towards what quadrant of the heavens does it extend from the one second local event? For static movement through time, is the Big Bang moving away from the local mass or is the local mass moving away from the BB?

1b. Does the passage of time alone increase the distance from the Big Bang? Does the Big Bang become the center of the Universe? For static movement through time, does the passage of time actually result in the expansion of space? Is the worldline for such static mass really equal the radius of the Universe? From where you are, point to the Big Bang. Is the Big Bang today just an infinitely thin membrane moving away from here at the velocity of light?

*Hubble’s Constant*

1c. Edwin Hubble while working with his assistant Milton Humason determined that the Universe was expanding. Today, the universal rate of the Universe’s expansion is referred to as Hubble’s Constant or simply *H*_{0}. One of the most recent estimates of (*H*_{0}) taken from the surveys utilizing the Hubble telescope is 71 ±4 km per second per megaparsec.[1] (A megaparsec is 3.085678 × 10^{22} meters.) Therefore, the mean measurement of the velocity of separation between two points in space that are located one megaparsec apart is 71 km per sec. At what distance of separation, measured in megaparsecs, do two points recede from each other at the velocity of light? What is the calculation in meters? Can two points recede from each other faster than *c*? Would this be a violation of Special Relativity?

1d. If two points, residing at an initial position of one megaparsec apart, move toward each other at 71 kilometers per second, as in a time-reversed movie, how long in seconds will it take for them to come together? A sidereal year (the year used in science) is 31,558,150 seconds. How long in years? Is there anything significant about this time?

1e. If two points that lay 5,000 megaparsecs from each other were to move together at 71 km/s/mpc, what would be their initial velocity of approach? What would be their final velocity of approach, assuming no acceleration? Would not all points in the Universe come together simultaneously? Could this coming together be interpreted as the Big Bang? Is this approach velocity greater or less than the velocity of light, i.e., <*c* or >*c*? Would this be a violation of Special Relativity? Given this answer, is there any room for inflation in the early Universe, i.e., an initial expansion at many times the velocity of light?

[1] Hubble’s constant has been estimated using different techniques, but most estimates lie within the four kilometer per second error window.