Preface

William of Ockham (c. 1285-1349) wrote that when comparing two theories, cut away the unnecessary assumptions. He expounded the belief that when two possible explanations can be given, always choose the simplest. This philosophy has also been described as the law of parsimony.

The Universe’s laws of physics did not predate the Universe’s expansion; they were a product of that expansion. Simply, it was the ratios of the Universe’s component parts and the change in these ratios that generated the universal physical laws. From the addition of one simple principal on another, all of the complexity of the Universe is unveiled.

William of Ockham is credited with establishing the principle bearing his name (although spelled differently). In actuality there is minimal information attributable to William. The essence of the principle is apparent in his statement “Numquam ponenda est pluralitas sine necessitate.” [Plurality must never be posited without necessity.] The term Occam’s Razor first appeared in 1852 within the works of Sir William Hamilton, the Ninth Baronet.

The Occam principle has also been termed the law of parsimony, economy or succinctness. Most ideas have a thread of logic that explains the concept. The better that the concept is understood; the simpler the explanation should be. Essence is simple. If something is explained completely with the minimum number of words or components, then in all likelihood it is close to the essence of the matter. Our greatest teachers are those who have been able to simplify the concepts that they teach to the most basic ingredients.

Simplicity applies not only to conceptual explanations but to the physical universe. Just a few laws of physics can explain a vast array of phenomena. If there are many different complex physical laws applicable to a particular situation, the interfacing of these various principles would tend to interfere with each other rendering the resulting universe unrecognizable. However, if the complexity of the observed phenomenon can be boiled down to a few simple principles, then the likelihood that the explanation is adequate is greatly increased.

If the present group of cosmological theories is viewed through the Occam logic filter they universally fall short.  The largest shortfall in all of the theories is that major components are unobservable and/or immeasurable.

Inflation theory puts forward conditions that have no evidence:   the theoretical vacuum energy whatever that is; the percolation of universes from the hyperinflationary “whatever”; the existence of the unseeable parts of our universe hypothesized in the theory.  The theory casually throws away Special Relativity both during the inflationary epoch and now, since distant parts of the Universe are theorized to be expanding faster than c.

String theory conveniently sequesters forever the unseeable seven dimensions.  Each of these becomes an adjustable parameter, which when compounded for all of the possible permutations, makes the millions of resulting theories the antithesis of Occam’s simplicity.  What does a rolled up dimension even mean?  It is either a dimension that positions and locates the stuff of the Universe or it doesn’t exist

M-theory leaves unexplained the source of the oscillating planes, what happens when the planes approach each other, i.e., does the existing universe collapse on itself?

Multiverse theory becomes one the most elusive.  Nothing can ever really be known about this theory since by definition, what is described are multiple universes that are at the other side of impenetrable barriers.  This is the nature a closed-system universe.

Is there a better explanation for dark matter than the idea of undetectable particles that don’t interact directly with matter and have no current basis in theory?  Even though these particles do not interact with matter or traditional energy, they must interact with each other.  Otherwise the lack of particle pressure would cause these particles to collapse to an infinitely dense dark matter center or singularity.

Exotic energy exploits the unseeable to the extreme.  Its source is unobservable, its mechanism is unknown, and its logic is questionable.  For a force to push everything away from everything else there must be a preferential push away from objects versus towards them.  Is this energy conserved as traditional energy or is there a continued influx of new energy?

Looking at these theories it becomes blatantly apparent that simplicity is clearly lacking.  There is no elegance in a group of hodgepodge unrelated theories.  All of these should be part of the same set of physical laws.  Instead each is an independent, complex, unobservable, and when taken together, unbelievable solution to the cosmological puzzle.  There must be a better, simpler explanation.

Quantum mechanics points out that uncertainty is built into the structure of the Universe.  This uncertainty shows up in the waveforms of matter and electromagnetic energy.  The irony concerning quantum mechanics is that the uncertainty of the waveform resolves itself in finite and specific results.  The electron has infinite wave possibilities in its orbit around the nucleus, yet these possibilities self-cancel to form the specific finite electron shells of the atom.  A change in electron shells results in a specific and predictable quantum of energy released or absorbed.

It is interesting that each waveform of light has significant quantum uncertainty as to wavelength and location, but that the wave grouping preserves its energy while in transit to an absolute degree.  So even though a particular wave will experience ongoing changes in wave length, the overall frequency will be maintained.  Energy is preserved at all costs.

The uncertainty within the quantum mechanics’ mechanism has been inappropriately exploited by modern theorist.  The term quantum can be substituted for finite.  It is specific and unitary.

When the Universe first formed and it was composed of only a few particles, quantum effects displayed themselves on a macro scale, but once the number of particles became significant, the quantum uncertainty became blended together to create statistical certainty.  Many of these theories exploit uncertainty to the extreme on a macro scale.

The uncertainty component of quantum mechanics has been isolated by modern theorists and used to give philosophical license to allow for any and all possibilities.  In the real universe the quantum selection process results is real and measurable events.  In the end, quantum mechanics’ philosophical exploitation is just bad science.

There is only one set of rules for the Universe.  This set is called the laws of physics.  These rules interlock in one grand design.  Individual theories try to describe one part of the whole, but in so doing, they only describe an aspect of the overall structure.  All theories must not only be compatible with the complete set of physical laws, they must fit together as one philosophical and mathematical unit.

The laws of physics are interlinking pieces to a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle.  There can be no gaps between concepts.  This is conceptual geometry.

The laws of thermodynamics, must work with chemistry, biology, the functioning of black holes and every other aspect of the physical universe.  Ultimately, a grand unified theory will explain a simple yet complete universal design.

Current cosmology theories are inconsistent within themselves let alone relative to each other.  These are not seamless ideas that lead to an explanation of everything.  They do not form a geometric whole with ideas that are locked to the adjacent concepts with no intervening gaps.

The Universe is a closed system.  This means that it is and has always been self-contained.  All that goes on or that has ever occurred has been determined by the Universe itself.

The laws of physics did not precede the Universe.  They were not bestowed upon the Universe.  They are a product of the Universe, how it formed, and how it evolved during the expansion.

The laws of physics are connected to the expansion.  They are related to the proportional changes in the Universe’s four dimensions.  The laws originate with the ratios and change in these ratios for the Universe.  The Universe’s volume is held in proportion to its surface area and radius, and these are experienced relative to the change in time.  It is this simple premise that generated the physics that is seen today.

In the 1993 film “Searching for Bobby Fischer” the character Bruce Pandolfini played by Ben Kingsley, the teacher of Joshua Waitzkin (Max Pomerank) a child prodigy, tells Max “Let me make it easier for you” and proceeds to sweep the pieces off the board onto the floor.  He then tells him to visualize the board and they proceed to play verbal chess.

If we sweep all that we know, or think we know, off the board and proceed to rebuild the Universe from the simplest assumptions possible, where will it lead?  We can then test each assumption with basic logic.  We then take our basic assumptions and turn them into fundamental formulas, some of which are well known.  The final step is to test it against current observations for credibility.  If the first set of assumptions test positive, then we make the next assumption, and so on.

As part of this process we can test each formulation for times prior to now.  The simplest method to accomplish this is to reduce the current radius of the Universe by half.  We can continue this reduction for many iterations until we approach quantum barriers.